|Definition:||Ostentatiously lofty in style.|
Демо ЕГЭ 2015 (12-18)
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. В каждом задании выберите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.
Space could solve water problems
Have you ever tasted saltwater? I guess you have and if so, you will agreewith me that it’s not very refreshing. In fact, drinking more than a few cups worthcan kill you.
According to the United States Geological Survey, whose mission is tocollect and disseminate reliable, impartial, and timely information that is needed tounderstand the nation’s water resources, about ninety-seven percent of the water onour planet is saltwater; the rest is stored in lakes, rivers, glaciers and aquifersunderground. Moreover, only about one-third of the world’s potential fresh watercan be used for human needs. As pollution increases, the amount of usable waterdecreases.
Water is the most precious and taken-for-granted resource we have on Earth.It is also one of the most threatened resources. Increased population and possibleclimate change will put more and more strain on supplies of this vital resource astime goes on. What could we do in this situation? Though it may seem like sciencefiction, the solution could lie in outer space.
I’m not saying we’re going to be teleporting to a spring on the other side ofthe galaxy or colonizing another planet just to have longer showers – it’s muchmore mundane than that. What we could achieve realistically in this century is thesuccessful use of the solar system’s rare metals and water, barring the invention ofthe matrix.
You may be surprised to learn that the metal in your keys, coins, cell phone,computer, car and everywhere else, originally came to this planet from space.When Earth formed, the heavy metals sank to the center and formed a solid core.The lighter elements formed the mantle and the crust we live on. Asteroids andcomets that struck the Earth brought water and metals to the surface.
There are thousands of asteroids orbiting near Earth. Most asteroids aremade of rock, but some are composed of metal, mostly nickel and iron. Probescould be sent out to these to identify useful ones. Then larger probes could pushthem towards the Earth where they can be handled in orbit.
In order to fuel ships and probes, we simply need to find a source of water,such as a comet or the surface of the moon. We collect the water and pass anelectric current through it from a solar panel. The water separates into oxygen andhydrogen, which in liquid form is a powerful rocket fuel.
Is this really possible? We may soon find out. Private company SpaceX hasalready started delivering equipment to the International Space Station (ISS).The ISS is proof that countries once at each other’s throats, like America andRussia, can work together and pull off multi-billion dollar projects.
Recently, a company called Planetary Resources Inc. made the news forgetting big names like Google and Microsoft to invest in exploring asteroids for material gain. Although it will take many decades, it is wise to put the gears in motion now.
We’ve already landed probes on the surface of asteroids and taken samples from them. We can put something as large as the ISS, which weighs just short of 500 tons, according to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in orbit.
We can make a half-million-mile round-trip to get rocks from the moon. We can do all of these things already. They just need to be applied and developed in a smart way.
Демо ЕГЭ 2015 (11)
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.
Promoting language learning
The European Union (EU) is committed to supporting the rights of its citizens to personal and professional mobility, and their ability to communicate with each other. It does so by A_____________________ to promote the teaching and learning of European languages. These programmes have at least one thing in common: they cover cross-border projects involving partners from two, and often three or more, EU countries.
The EU programmes are designed to complement the national education policies of member countries. Each government is responsible for its own national education policy, B_____________________. What the EU programmes do is to create links between countries and regions via joint projects, C_____________________.
Since 2007 the main programmes have been put under the overall umbrella of the EU’s lifelong learning programme. All languages are eligible for support under this programme: official languages, regional, minority and migrant languages, D_____________________. There are national information centres in each country, E_____________________.
The cultural programmes of the EU also promote linguistic and cultural diversity in a number of ways. The “Media” programme funds the dubbing and subtitling of European films for F _____________________. The “Culture” programme builds cross-cultural bridges by supporting the translation of modern authors into other EU languages.
1. and the languages of the EU’s major trading partners
2. which includes language teaching and learning
3. cinemas and television in other EU countries
4. which enhance the impact of language teaching and learning
5. funding a number of educational programmes
6. and encouraging people to learn new languages
7. where details about the application procedures are given
Демо ЕГЭ 2015 (10)
Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. When we don’t sleep
2. Not only for humans
3. How dreaming helps
4. When we dream
5. Why dreams can be scary
6. What we feel dreaming
7.How we forget dreams
8. How we remember dreams
A. Even though our dreams may feel like they last for hours and hours, we hardly spend more than two hours dreaming each night, which means a person spends a total of nearly six years dreaming throughout a lifetime. In general there are four phases of the sleep cycle and all dreaming occurs practically at the final phase. Each of these sleep cycles lasts approximately 60 to 90 minutes and may repeat several times throughout the night.
B. Anxiety is the most popular emotion experienced in dreams. Many people dream of falling, which is often connected to something in our lives that is going in the wrong direction. In addition, dreams of being chased are very common and are linked to avoidance. Also people report dreams about their teeth falling out, which is related to the words and communication we might have in real life.
C. Dreaming helps people make sense of the information and events that occur in their lives. Dreams play an important role in processing and remembering information that we absorb daily. Also, they help reduce stress and even solve problems. It’s very possible to work through real-life problems while dreaming at night. In addition, dreams provide a lot of important content and meaning that can be used to inspire and direct our lives during the day.
D. Nearly 5 to 10% of adults have nightmares. There are several reasons for it, for example when people start taking certain medications or when they withdraw from drugs. Some physical conditions, such as stress or illness, can also be a trigger. However, in some cases adults may have frequent nightmares that are unrelated to their everyday lives, which may signify that they are more creative, sensitive, and emotional than the average person.
E. There is no person who does not have dreams, but not everybody recalls them. The most vivid dreams happen during the Rapid Eye Movement sleep stage when the brain is extremely active and the eyes move back and forth quickly underneath the eyelids. Although dream recall varies from person to person, some people have little or no recollection of the content, and around 90% of dreams are gone following the first 10 minutes of waking up.
F. Scientists have found that animals also dream and their subconscious thoughts are connected to real experiences. Animals’ dreams are complex, containing long sequences of events. Animals’ brains share the same series of sleeping states as the brain of human beings. Analyzing animals’ dreams and the content of their dreams may help scientists treat memory disorders and develop new ways for people to learn and retain information more effectively.
G. Only five minutes after the end of a dream and half of the content is likely to vanish from our memories. It’s not that dreams aren’t important enough to keep in mind, but other things tend to get in the way. Dream researcher L. Strumpell believes that dreams disappear from our memories for a number of factors. For example, we may not recall dream images that lack intensity, association or repetition, which are usually needed for dream recall.