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ЕГЭ 2014 досрочный

Чтение А15-А21 вариант1

Internet

Internet is one of the greatest tools we have today. Billions of bits of information, unlimited ways to connect, games to play, videos to watch, things to learn. There’s something for everyone. We Facebook, tumble, stumble, and tweet more now than ever. Social media is connecting us in incredible ways. You can create communities of like-minded people that would never meet before on the Internet. But, due to this, we are spending copious amounts of time on the World Wide Web, and it’s slowly changing who you are as a person.
I went for a long period of time where I didn’t read a book. I finally got around to picking up a few new books and as soon as I started reading them, I struggled. I couldn’t hold concentration like I used to. I would read a whole paragraph with my mind elsewhere or had this constant anxious feeling to do something else, even when there was absolutely nothing else to do. My mind would jump from one thought to another and I barely could read a chapter in one sitting. I talked to a few people about this, and I even looked to the trusty Internet for my solution. I found that I’m not alone, many people report the same type of concentration shift. The reason for this is the information overload via Internet.
We take in 34 gigabytes of information each day now. That is 5 times more than we did 20 years ago. There is so much going on in our minds that we rarely spend any time on one particular bit of information because there is always something new and more intriguing just around the corner. When we land on a webpage, we spend the average of about 50 seconds, if that, and know that there are at least 5 other links we can click on the page. We can still concentrate, but our minds would much rather be focused on a series of things, not one thought.
Not only is it altering our concentration on reading long works, but it’s changing “how” we read. We no longer read; we skim. This is our way of adapting to this information overload. It would take too long to process all this information and we don’t need everything. We sift through the information and get to the main point or relevant material.
The way things are written online is changing for us as well. For anyone who has written a blog post, it’s a much different style of writing compared to novels and even newspaper articles. The things we read online are as clear and concise as possible. Adjectives are a thing of the past. The information is usually already condensed for you, and is separated into neat headlines that make it easy to scan the page in a few seconds. We don’t focus on comprehension anymore, we know what we’re looking for and we find it quickly.
The way we are reading things is just the start, the way we are thinking is changing too. Before, we had calm linear thoughts, one thing led to another. Now, our thoughts are jumping back and forth between so many things. We have one thought, which leads to four or five other non-related thoughts, and then some time later we return to the original thought. This is a direct result of our attention being focused on so many things for so little time on the web. There is always a link that can take us somewhere new and start a new train of thoughts.
We’ve developed a much more fluid way of thinking. And it’s not a bad thing. It’s making us more creative. You are much more efficient at combing and filtering through ideas, which in essence is what inspiration is. Linear thought is very organized and does not leave room for new ideas.
So, the Internet has become an essential part of our daily lives. But it’s also important to disconnect for a while and to take care of your body and mind. Create a balance of time online and in the real world, so you can reap the positive cognitive abilities the Internet is giving you and avoid forming an unhealthy set of habits that will cost you later in life.


Устная часть ЕГЭ:

Речевые клише для заданий 3 и 4

Как описать фото? Как сравнить две фотографии? Следующие слова и выражения помогут вам это сделать.

I took this photo last summer when I was in...

I'd like to show you this photo because...

The picture/photo  shows...

In the picture I  can see...

There is/are ...in this picture

The central focus of the picture is…

On the right/left there is/are...

There is/are ... in the background

The people in the picture are ...

The people in the picture look happy because ...

The people in the picture seem sad  because ...

The general atmosphere in the picture is positive because...

The weather in the picture is...

It seems to me that/It looks like….

I guess/I imagine…

As I see it…

From my point of view…

It is not very clear, but probably…

I’m not sure, but it could be…

The picture makes me feel happy/sad/…

The picture inspires me to think about…

The picture gives me the impression that…

To sum up/To summarize


Comparing and contrasting

In the first photo...

In the second photo ...

Both photos show...

The pictures are similar because they both...

The photos are really different/similar, for example...

In both pictures the people are...

I think the common theme here is ...

One/the main  similarity/difference between the pictures  is that...

What both pictures have in common is...

However, there are also some differences between the pictures.

The picture on the left  is ... than the other one.

The second picture  contains...  whereas the first picture...

 

Демо ЕГЭ 2015 (12-18)
Чтение

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. В каждом задании выберите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Space could solve water problems
Have you ever tasted saltwater? I guess you have and if so, you will agreewith me that it’s not very refreshing. In fact, drinking more than a few cups worthcan kill you.

According to the United States Geological Survey, whose mission is tocollect and disseminate reliable, impartial, and timely information that is needed tounderstand the nation’s water resources, about ninety-seven percent of the water onour planet is saltwater; the rest is stored in lakes, rivers, glaciers and aquifersunderground. Moreover, only about one-third of the world’s potential fresh watercan be used for human needs. As pollution increases, the amount of usable waterdecreases.
Water is the most precious and taken-for-granted resource we have on Earth.It is also one of the most threatened resources. Increased population and possibleclimate change will put more and more strain on supplies of this vital resource astime goes on. What could we do in this situation? Though it may seem like sciencefiction, the solution could lie in outer space.
I’m not saying we’re going to be teleporting to a spring on the other side ofthe galaxy or colonizing another planet just to have longer showers – it’s muchmore mundane than that. What we could achieve realistically in this century is thesuccessful use of the solar system’s rare metals and water, barring the invention ofthe matrix.
You may be surprised to learn that the metal in your keys, coins, cell phone,computer, car and everywhere else, originally came to this planet from space.When Earth formed, the heavy metals sank to the center and formed a solid core.The lighter elements formed the mantle and the crust we live on. Asteroids andcomets that struck the Earth brought water and metals to the surface.
There are thousands of asteroids orbiting near Earth. Most asteroids aremade of rock, but some are composed of metal, mostly nickel and iron. Probescould be sent out to these to identify useful ones. Then larger probes could pushthem towards the Earth where they can be handled in orbit.
In order to fuel ships and probes, we simply need to find a source of water,such as a comet or the surface of the moon. We collect the water and pass anelectric current through it from a solar panel. The water separates into oxygen andhydrogen, which in liquid form is a powerful rocket fuel.
Is this really possible? We may soon find out. Private company SpaceX hasalready started delivering equipment to the International Space Station (ISS).The ISS is proof that countries once at each other’s throats, like America andRussia, can work together and pull off multi-billion dollar projects.
Recently, a company called Planetary Resources Inc. made the news forgetting big names like Google and Microsoft to invest in exploring asteroids for material gain. Although it will take many decades, it is wise to put the gears in motion now.
We’ve already landed probes on the surface of asteroids and taken samples from them. We can put something as large as the ISS, which weighs just short of 500 tons, according to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in orbit.
We can make a half-million-mile round-trip to get rocks from the moon. We can do all of these things already. They just need to be applied and developed in a smart way.

1. 12.What problem is raised in the article?
Cooperation in space.
Threats of climate change.
Danger of drinking salt water.
Lack of water supplies on Earth.

2. 13.According to the author, the information published in the US Geological Survey is meant to …
assure the nation that there is still enough of usable water.
help to monitor the state of the country’s water resources.
demonstrate the quality of water the nation uses.demonstrate the quality of water the nation uses.
warn the public about the dangers of water pollution.

3. 14.The author thinks that outer space …
is dangerous because of asteroids.
is a source of important supplies.
is not studied properly.
should be colonized.

4. 15.According to the author, the space water sources may be used for …
fuel production.
water supplies for spaceships.
moon exploration.
the production of electricity.

5. 16.The Google and Microsoft (paragraph 9) are mentioned to …
explain how Planetary Resources Inc. became famous.
prove that asteroids can be commercially attractive.
show that space research is important for computer science.
prove that asteroids can interfere with the Internet.

6. 17.The expression “put the gears in motion” in “…it is wise to put the gears in motion now” (paragraph 9) means …
to explore.
to begin.
to move.
to invest.

7. 18.What idea is stressed in the last two paragraphs?
There is room for further achievements in space exploration.
Asteroids are unique objects for scientific research.
Only smart administration can manage space programs.
International Space Station is the heaviest object in space.

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Correct answers:

 

 

 

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