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ЕГЭ Чтение 2

ЕГЭ Чтение 2


Read a passage. For questions 1 – 5, choose the best answer from the suggested.

Albert Einstein is one of the greatest science philosophers.

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14th, 1879. When he was one year old, the family moved to Munich.
One story Einstein liked to tell about his childhood was a “wonder” he saw when he was four or five years old. His father gave him a magnetic compass. Albert practiced turning the compass every which way, soon becoming fascinated by the new toy. No matter which way he turned it, the needle would always point in the same direction. The compass convinced him that there had to be “something behind things, something deeply hidden.” This was probably something that sparkled his interests in physics.
According to the family legend Albert was a slow talker at first, pausing to consider what he would say, and did not read until he was seven. His parents feared that he was below average intelligence. Probably Albert was simply a thoughtful and shy child. From that time on, he attended a Catholic primary school. Although he got generally good grades, and was outstanding in mathematics, Einstein hated the school he was sent to, where success depended on memorization and good behavior. His teacher described him as “mentally slow, unsociable and is forever in his foolish dreams.” But he was an independent thinker and in reality he surpassed the other students. His real studies were done at home with books on mathematics, physics, and philosophy. Einstein’s mother introduced him to music, and he became a fine violinist. He also excelled in mathematics. At 11 he studied physics at the university level. A teacher suggested Einstein to leave school, since his very presence destroyed the other students’ respect for the teacher. The fifteen-year-old boy left school in mid-term to join his parents, who had moved to Italy for his father’s business.
When he was sixteen he moved to Switzerland. Einstein applied at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich that would have allowed him to take a course of study leading to a diploma as an electrical engineer. But he did not pass the entrance exam as a result of his poor French. However after a year of reading on his own, he passed the exam and in 1896 he entered the Polytechnic to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics.
In 1902, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work. While there, he wrote papers that would revolutionize the study of physics. One of these papers was developed from an essay he wrote when he was 16. This publication is known as the ‘Special Theory of Relativity.’ It introduced an entirely new concept of time and motion. In 1905 he obtained his doctor’s degree. As a result of his scientific papers, Einstein was regarded as the rising star of theoretical physics.
In 1908, Einstein became a lecturer at the University of Bern. Then, in1909, he became a Professor of physics at the University of Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague. By that time, Einstein had been recognized as the leading scientific thinker. In 1916, Einstein published his Famous General Theory of Relativity. His theoretical research was tested in May, 1919 by two British Astronomer expeditions. The results from these expeditions agreed Einstein’s theory, and laid the foundation for Einstein’s world fame. In November 1921, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.
Einstein always had a clear view of the problems of physics and the strength to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to the goal.



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